Diplomatic relations between the USSR and Lesotho were established on 1 February, 1980. Embassy of the USSR & later of Russia operated in Maseru in 1983-1992.

In the mid-1980s the two countries signed agreements on cultural and scientific cooperation, on economic and technical interaction.

In the area of foreign policy the two countries delegations collaborate in different fora including the UNO and its specialized agencies, in a true spirit of partnership consider mutual requests for support in elections held within international organizations. In particular, Russia provided assistance in adding Lesotho's Sehlabathebe National Park on UNESCO World Heritage List.

In June 2014 modern medical equipment amounting to 1mln USD was delivered to Lesotho with the participation of Russia’s Ministry of Emergency Situations, “EMERCOM” agency and the International Civil Defence Organization (ICDO). In October-December 2014 humanitarian aid purchased for the funds allocated by Russia was distributed in Lesotho under the UN’s World Food Program (the total cost is estimated at 1 mln USD).

In December 2014, at the request of the Government of Lesotho, 4 advanced traumatological & 2 surgical modules were delivered in Maseru as humanitarian aid. The modules are designed to carry out 400 surgical operations with 10-day postsurgical recovery. The cargo mass amounted to 2,5 tones, whereas its total cost is estimated at 1 mln USD.

Bilateral inter-parliamentary and inter-ministerial contacts are currently experiencing revitalization. In October 2017 a Lesotho delegation headed by Speaker of the National Assembly of Lesotho S.Motanyane paid a visit to Saint-Petersburg. In November 2017 Minister of Health of Lesotho N.Kaya visited Moscow and took part in the first WHO Global Ministerial Conference "Ending Tuberculosis (TB) in the Sustainable Development Era: A Multisectoral Response".

In April 2018 a delegation headed by member of the Senate of Lesotho T.Mohale participated in Yalta International Economic Forum in Crimea.

In September 2018 President of the Senate of Lesotho M.Mokitimi visited Saint-Petersburg at the invitation of the organizers of the Second Eurasian Women’s Forum. In July 2019 M.Mokitimi was the head of the delegation of Lesotho at the II International Forum “Development of Parliamentarism” and the I Parliamentary Conference “Russia-Africa”.

February 2019 saw the first working visit of Minister of Foreign Affairs and International Relations of Lesotho L.Makgothi to Russia in the history of bilateral relations.

In January – September 2019 trade turnover between Russia and Lesotho amounted to 1,7 mln USD, wherein the bulk of the value was accounted for by Russian import of natural and cultivated pearls from Lesotho. No exports from Russia to Lesotho were carried out.

Ambassador of Russia to RSA H.E. Mr. Ilya Rogachev is concurrently the Ambassador of Russia to Lesotho (appointed by presidential decrees № 315 of July 3, 2019 and № 338 of July 17, 2019), his credentials were presented on December 5, 2019.

Ambassador of Lesotho to Germany Retselisitsoe C. Masenyetse is concurrently the Ambassador of Lesotho to Russia. His credentials were presented on October 11, 2018.

The Honorary Consul of Lesotho in Moscow – Mr. Dmitrii Sherkovin (appointed on October 26, 2005).